The City of Kingston – Doing Electrification Right
In October the City of Kingston approved a new Kingston Electric Vehicle Strategy. This document lays out a series of actions Kingston will take to reduce the council’s own transportation related green house gas (GHG) emissions and how they will help citizens and visitors do the same.
We have an interest how Kingston does this besides as a good example for the City of Ottawa to follow. We lived in Kingston for several months in 2015 and 2016 preparing for our trip south on Kinship and we have a son studying at Queens so we visit several times a year.
The strategy addresses three “Target Areas”, let’s take a look:
Target Area 1 – Electrification of Municipal Fleet
Kingston is going to start with their fleet of cars and light commercial vehicles. This a natural outcome of the current pricing and incentives available. As older vehicles in this class come up for replacement, they will be replaced with EVs and Level 2 chargers will be installed. Later transit buses and other vehicle will come into play as options become available. The City of Kingston is a member of the Canadian Urban Transit Research & Innovation Consortium (CUTRIC) A consortium exploring options for electric buses in Canada, starting with a pilot project in York Region I suspect that Kingston will find that buses are available today that can meet their requirements.
Target Area 2 – Support Community Adoption and Use of EVs
Kingston has only a handful of charging stations today, although it is worth pointing out that on a per-capita basis they have more stations than Ottawa. Kingston is going to install 2 DC Fast Chargers and 25 dual level 2 AC chargers across the city. This network will allow visitors and locals to charge in many handy locations. There is a certain amount of “build it and then they will come” here, but the plan is sound and it will draw EVs to downtown which is under served today. As visitors this is great for us, we have to charge in the West end today, well away from Queens, downtown and where our son lives. Charging will be free at the Level 2 stations, the DC stations will be in the $10-15 range.
Kingston is also working on preparing the grid and having EV charging as an integral part of new builds for the City.
Target Area 3 – Support Municipal Employees Use of EVs
This target area is weaker than the other area, the City is planning on installing chargers for employees if there is demand. For many Cities this is an area with real impact, hopefully Kingston will follow through on this.
Kingston’s initial capital investment in these programs is $796,000, representing 0.15% of the total 2018 budget. If Ottawa was to allocate the same percentage we would be looking about $5,000,000. Kingston is to be congratulated on their commitment, I will look to 2019 to see how their bus fleet electrification progresses. Kingston spend about $82,000 per year supporting the operation of the chargers with cost reductions from fees reducing this over time.
As a Model for Other Municipalities
Using Kingston as a model is certainly valid for small-medium municipalities in Ontario. The current provincial programs support the switch and similar sized cities could implement this strategy successfully. Larger Cities can take much from the strategy, but it would need to be adapted to the larger organisation sizes involved.
Kingston is evidence that leadership and a relatively small budget commitment can go a long way to starting the process of reducing the GHG impact in a way that saves money.
Winter Driving in an e-Golf
We are in the midst of a cold snap here in Ottawa, colder than Mars according to the headlines. The temperatures over the last week or two have been consistently very cold, with a few days not making it much above -20C. We have had some snow and the roads have been challenging at times. Electric Alice has behaved well, and here are some of our thoughts and observations. We have only used the car in town at these temperatures so far, a longer trip will have to wait for another post.
We have installed good winter tyres, Nokian Hakkapeliitta R2s, They are great tyres and perform well in all the conditions we have had so far. The R2 is designed for low rolling resistance and scores very highly in tyre tests. We have found that the R2s are noisier than the summer tyres, but overall the noise level is not much worse.
On slippery roads, the traction control works really well, no torque-steer at all with really only the light on the dash to tell you what is happening. EVs generally have good traction control as the motor is far more responsive than a gas engine. Under hard braking, the ABS works well, just like any other VW.
Regenerative braking seems to work differently if the battery is cold. In warmer weather, we see about 50kW of regen in B mode and 100kW under braking. With low temps, the regen seems to be much reduced, perhaps less than half of normal operation. This is similar to driving with the battery close to 100%. I suspect that the battery is being protected from some high current events.
Volkswagen have clearly put a lot of effort into making the e-Golf comfortable in the winter. The heater is very powerful, keeping the cabin warm in temps well below -20C. There is a combination of heat pump and resistive heating, with a total power draw of about 6-7kW. When the car is cold and you turn on the heated seats, heat front and rear windscreens, the power draw sits at about 7.8kW, a huge draw. Once the cabin is warm, this seems to cycle between 4.4 and 6 kW at -20C.
On the cold days I have been using the preheating function to take the edge off, it is nice to reach the car across the large and windy parking lot at work and settle into a warm car. It is a shame you can’t turn the seat heaters on with the timer, but they come on in a few seconds.
All this warmth has a big impact on range guess-o-meter (GoM) and the real range. We keep our car in our garage that sits at a few degrees above zero if it is -20C outside. We see about 110 km on the GoM before we turn the car on, about 130 km when the car is on.
Driving around town is about the worst thing you can do for range in the winter, the draw of the heating systems does not drop as you sit in traffic, getting out of the car to run an errand lets the cabin cool down and you have to put a bunch of heat back in. On Saturday we did about 75km in -22C temps with about 6 stops over the day, we got home with about 25km range, so 100km is a realistic range in these conditions. This was the only time I have experienced a touch of range anxiety in town, but when I thought it through, I know where the DC fast chargers are and we were never more than a few km from one so if we had gotten close to running out of electrons, I could have picked some up easily.
We use about 30kWh/100km at -20C, compared with about 16 kWh/100km in warmer weather. A lot of this is the heating but there is also some loss of range due to increases in rolling resistance due to road conditions and hysteresis of the cold tyres. Air resistance is higher in cold temperatures too. Fossil cars are also much less efficient in cold weather, perhaps 30% or so.
The reduction of range really brings into focus the benefits of workplace charging. If you have a longer commute, plugging in at work, with the option to preheat your car without using the battery is a big help. Thankfully, the e-Golf does not have to be plugged-in to use the preheat function.
When we bought Alice, we did so on the assumption that we would rent a car for all long trips. In warmer weather we have not found that necessary, but I think we would have to think hard about a long trip in the depth of winter. On the other hand, in town, even in a cold snap we have a car that is warm, comfortable, easy and safe to drive on difficult roads and I have not had to stand in -20C for 5 minutes to fuel up.
Christmas Holiday in Europe
We spent the last couple of weeks visiting Germany and the UK to see friends and family. Though this was not an EV related trip we did see some things of note.
In Germany we saw an e-Golf in a dealer showroom. We drove by on a Sunday so we could not check to see if it was sold or not, but it might point to better availability in Germany than we have here in Canada. We saw a few EVs on the road, Teslas mainly.
We headed to the UK for Christmas with family. We picked up my sister from Liverpool airport and on the way to my parent’s place we stopped at Burtonwood Motorway Services on the M62 between Liverpool and Manchester. As with most services in the UK, Ecotricity has installed a pair of L3 chargers supporting CHAdeMO and CCS, with a side of Type 2 AC. The standards as Renault has high power Type 2 charging on the Zoe, rather than the CHAdeMO of the Leaf, despite Renault owning a controlling interest in Nissan. There is great video on how the Ecotricity chargers work here. There is a new 8 bay Supercharger on the other side of the car park that is about to be commissioned. Installing charging at service areas is an obvious and needed addition, sadly, despite all the service areas in Ontario being owned by the province, there has been no progress on this here.
The UK has fines for ICEing, which is great. Quebec now has similar rules.
We saw our first electric bus in Manchester. Manchester has a free shuttle bus service in the city centre with at least 3 pure electric buses joining a fleet of diesel-electric hybrids in 2014.
Electric buses make so much sense, Shenzhen has a 16,000 strong fleet of electric buses, more cities should move away from diesel.
In addition to free electric shuttles, Manchester also benefits from the Brompton hire system. For £3.50 a day you can rent a Brompton, which is a great deal. This dock is at Manchester Piccadilly rail station. The Bromptons act as the last mile solution.
Seeing integrated transportation options like this in the UK, which has a far more complicated model with many private companies and funding agency shows how far behind we are in Ontario with a much simpler political landscape.
We rounded out our trip to Manchester to two monuments to Vimto, ruiner of many carpets and to Alan Turing, founding father of Computer Science.
A Response from the Ontario Ministry of Transportation to our EV Program Review
I received the letter below from Jamie Austin, the Director of the Transportation Policy Branch MTO. The original letter is here, I have made the text available below and I have added links to the programs Mr Austin discusses. I am very grateful to Mr Austin for taking the time to respond and I think he is offering some insights into how the Province will address the issues we see with the EV programs. As a community we still have a lot of work to do to address some of the policy gaps.
Our review is here, I suggest you read it first if you have not seen it before.
Dear Mr. Eglin,
Thank you for your email to the Honourable Steven Del Duca, Minister of Transportation dated October 5, 2017 and your emails regarding your review of Ontario electric vehicle programs. I appreciate your interest and enthusiasm for electric vehicles, and assure you that we share your ambitions for the electrification of transportation in Ontario. As a follow up to our brief discussion on these matters at the ITS World Congress in Montreal, I am happy to respond to you in greater detail on behalf of the Ministry of Transportation.
Electric Vehicle Incentive Program (EVIP) and Electric Vehicle Charging Incentive Program (EVCIP)
I appreciate your positive feedback of EVIP and EVCIP, and acknowledge that there have been unfortunate delays in processing applications for these programs. While I am happy to report that demand for these programs has significantly increased over the last year, this led to a backlog in processing applications and making payments to program recipients. The Ministry of Transportation has recently committed new resources to the management of these programs in order to address both the current backlog and ongoing increased demand, and I’m pleased to say that this issue should be mitigated in the near future.
Electric Vehicle Chargers Ontario (EVCO)
EVCO was an application-based program that received an overwhelming response of over 200 applications. Applicants identified what they felt were good locations for the deployment of EV chargers. Because program recipients are responsible for the ongoing maintenance and operation of the chargers it is important that they themselves choose the locations, giving due consideration to the business plans under which they operate. Through the evaluation process, cost efficiency, appropriateness of the site and the number of stations per site were carefully considered, with a focus on the greatest possible connectivity of the network from among the eligible applications received.
As you have noted, there are a number of chargers that are planned under the EVCO program that are not presently listed on our website/program map. For a number of reasons, such as site conditions or host business decisions, some sites originally planned under the EVCO program have been determined to be unsuitable. In these cases wherever possible, EVCO program recipients have been proposing replacement sites to the government for consideration. These sites are added in to the EVCO map as they are approved for inclusion in the program. Where alternative locations cannot be found, projects will be modified to a smaller number of chargers/locations and the government will recover a portion of the funding that was allocated. The program is currently tracking towards the installation of nearly 300 level 2 chargers and over 200 level 3 chargers at approximately 250 locations across the province, and is currently two-thirds complete.
I note you have also observed some customer service issues with EVCO recipients. We do expect that EVCO recipients, and particularly operators of level 3 chargers, operate a 24/7 toll-free customer assistance number so that drivers can report outages and malfunctions, obtain assistance with point-of-sale and customer authentication, or to request assistance operating the charger. We are working with EVCO recipients to ensure they are meeting these expectations and we believe the issues that you have observed will improve over time.
Moving forward, we will be working to implement actions in the Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP), such as the rapid deployment of charging in government facilities, workplaces, multi-unit residential buildings, downtowns and town centres. CCAP includes up to $80 million over four years, for the continued deployment of EV charging infrastructure. We will be launching the first programming with these additional funds in the near future. As part of our program planning, we are monitoring the use of EVCO charging stations to better understand remaining service gaps. As we move towards our future plans, we will be sure to keep your suggestions in mind and welcome any additional suggestions that you may have.
I should also acknowledge the investments that the federal government is making in charging in Ontario, including projects under the Electric Vehicle and Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Deployment Initiative (EVAFIDI) and the Energy Innovation Program (EIP). We are also working closely with Natural Resources Canada to identify other opportunities for investment in Ontario.
Reduced Output Fast Chargers
Your observation about some level 3 chargers having reduced output in your review and your email addressed to Minister Del Duca is correct, as is your assessment about the root cause – that 50 kW is the threshold after which higher demand fees are incurred. This is in part associated with local distribution company (LDC) policies across the province, many of which will not permit secondary electrical services to a property for safety considerations. Accordingly, some EVCO recipients have reduced the total output of fast chargers to between 30 and 40 kW. Under a program like EVCO, the only alternative would be significantly fewer chargers or to have level 2 chargers installed. We understand your concerns about this matter and are currently determining the best approach to ensure that this information is communicated to the public transparently.
Cost of Charging
Recognizing that EVCO program recipients are responsible for all operating and maintenance costs of the chargers installed as part of their projects, the province did not specify the rate that would be charged by public charging stations. Fees are set by the owner/operator of the charger, and you will find a variety of fees across the province ranging from free to $17/hour, depending on the charging speed and other factors (i.e. parking included, etc.). We are monitoring the pricing for EV charging in Ontario at both EVCO and non EVCO chargers and reserve the right to intervene where the province determines fees at EVCO chargers are unreasonable.
With regard to kWh pricing for EV charging, there are additional regulatory considerations which fall under the authority of Measurement Canada, specifically under the Weights and Measures Act. The province of Ontario has had an open dialogue with the federal government on this through work related to the upcoming national Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Strategy, and we are monitoring the federal government for any regulatory changes or developments. Chargers installed as part of the EVCO program were required to have the capability to charge by kWh, so if and when these federal rules are changed EVCO recipients will have the flexibility to use kWh pricing if they choose.
EV Supply Management
Ontario has not opted to proceed with establishing a ZEV mandate, such as the approach taken in Quebec, as Ontario believes that a collaborative approach with a province-wide sales target that represents a collective goal will be the most effective approach. Through the Electric and Hydrogen Vehicle Advancement Partnership (EHVAP), the province is working closely with automakers, unions and other interested stakeholders to ensure that there is an adequate supply of EVs available in Ontario to meet demand over the next few years. We are also monitoring EV policies from other jurisdictions, including Quebec, with a particular interest on any potential impacts in Ontario.
In closing, I would like to thank you again for your feedback on Ontario’s electric vehicle programs. We are continually looking for opportunities to improve and adapt our programming to meet a fast evolving sector. I believe that we share the same enthusiasm for electric vehicles and optimism for the potential they offer to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve air quality, and lower transportation costs for all Ontarians. Thank you for your commitment to the electrification of transportation in Ontario.
Jamie Austin Director
- Darryl Soshycki, Manager, Sustainable and Innovative Transportation Office, Ministry of Transportation
EVs are Traffic Too
In the before time, when we still had a fossil car we had a rule, we did not take the car out for one errand. One errand was a walk or a cycle to the closest store, not perhaps the cheapest but we saved on gas to make up the difference. We tried hard to make sure we had at least three errands to do in the same end of town before we pushed another dinosaur out into the atmosphere. When we reached enlightenment with Electric Alice that rule went out the window. With no pollution, low costs and even lower guilt, we were freed to drive whenever we felt like it.
In the last couple of weeks and after driving 12,000 km since July, it has become clear to me that this freedom comes at a cost – traffic. Arriving late somewhere we, like most people say we were stuck in traffic, but this a lie, the honest way to phrase this is “we were traffic and traffic was slow”. EVs are great in traffic, quiet, easy to drive and with one foot driving being in traffic is far less taxing than a fossil car.
But we are traffic too, we might not pollute but we can contribute to congestion and by the same measure contribute to pollution indirectly.
With an EV, the personal cost of being in congestion is reduced. An EV is easier in traffic, and more relaxed generally, so it is more tolerable to sit in a traffic jam. The personal cost gets less as the cars get smarter. Tesla, Nissan and VW all sell EVs that will just follow the car in front in a jam, taking over much of the driving task. If we take this to the extreme with autonomous cars (should this turn out to be possible, more on this point in a later post) the personal cost of traffic congestion is almost completely removed. You could work, sleep, play just as you might on a train. You have to wonder if autonomous cars are going to need a washroom and a club car to be really successful. There is a real chance that the move to more automated EVs will mean more traffic. A lot of the rest of traffic will still be burning dinos, reducing the benefit of electrification through congestion.
Fleets of shared self-driving cars, such as Waymo and Uber are proposing would be catastrophic for traffic if they succeed as a large scale replacement for personal cars. Each trip with passengers will require an extra trip for pick up. 50% of traffic from these services will be empty. As a replacement or supplement to transit, the issue of traffic is even worse.
Widespread electrification could impact cities with congestion charges like London. With the current system, EVs are not charged to enter central London, but if significant percentage of all vehicles are electric there is quite the potential for gridlock. Policies will have to be adjusted to ensure traffic can flow and that the streets are not totally given up to cars and trucks, no matter how green they are. Oslo, perhaps the most electrified city in the world will start to charge EVs to enter the city centre as of January. The charge is small (€ 1.1 vs € 4.7 for a petrol car) but will rise again in 2020.
So, my plan is to try to go back to the three errand rule, at least when there is a lot of traffic. Walking and cycling are still better for the world, even if you drive an EV.
Ontario’s Electric Vehicle Programs – A User Review
The Government of Ontario has a broad set of policies and programs aimed at promoting electrification in the province. As a user of many of these programs I think a personal review might be of benefit to other users and the managers of the programs.
Electric Vehicle Incentive Program (EVIP) B
The EVIP is designed to subsidise the purchase of EVs, based on factors such as battery capacity and number of seats, the EVIP delivers an incentive of between $3000 and $14,000 depending on model. We qualified for the full $14,000 and this was processed by the dealer when we bought the car. The incentive brought the price of our car into a similar price range as a fossil car of the same make. By removing the premium for EVs, it allowed us to consider an EV when we would likely not have been able to afford one without the EVIP.
As a way of seeding the market and ensuring demand this program has been very successful. It has created long waiting lists for EVs in Ontario and has to be regarded as successful. This has highlighted a lack of effective supply side policy, but I will come back to this later.
My personal take on the incentive is I have been paid $14,000 to be an ambassador, I am happy to help promote EVs and share my experiences. But even if other beneficiaries of the program don’t share this view, just by being present on the road shows that EVs are now a normal choice of regular people.
The only thing standing between EVIP and an A are the delayed payments. The province did not have enough staff to process the payments quickly and there is a large backlog. Most dealers will not process the incentive on behalf of their customers due to long delays in getting paid. This means that the customer has to pay the $14,000 out of pocket and wait months for the cheque from the province, this reduces the affordability of EVs. I understand that more staff have been hired to process payments. Hopefully this will improve quickly.
Electric Vehicle Charging Incentive Program B+
This is a small program that provides a 50% incentive for both a home charger and the installation of the charger, up to $500 for each. This program is small in value compared to the EVIP but it has some great features that will help grow the EV market. Firstly the incentive is only available for chargers bought in Canada from a Canadian source. Without the incentive I would have saved some money and imported a charger from the US. With the incentive, I used a dealer in Ontario. The Canadian distributors and manufacturers are helped to grow and this will ensure that EV chargers are sold and supported in Canada. This is great choice by the province and means that you can go to Home Depot and pick up a charger just like any other appliance. The program also requires an electrical inspection ensuring that the charger is safely installed.
Once again, the only thing reducing my mark is the slow processing of payments, I have yet to receive my payment after 3 months.
Electric Vehicle Chargers Ontario (EVCO) D-
The EVCO grant program was intended to fund a large role out of Level 2 and Level 3 chargers with a completion date of March 2017. Funding of $19,845,122 is intended to deliver 274 Level 2 chargers and 211 Level 3 chargers. Level 2 chargers are slower chargers and are suitable for sites where users will spend 2-5 hours such as hotels, parking etc, Level 3 chargers are faster and suited to places where the stay is 40 minutes or less and along a travel corridor.
Without the EVCO program, long distance travel by EV (other than Tesla) would not be possible at all. The program has problems but these have to examined remembering that there were next to no level 3 chargers on the highways of Ontario before this program.
At seven months after the target date of the promised over a third of the chargers have not been delivered. Of the 274 promised Level 2 chargers, 50 are “coming soon”, with no plans for the final 42 and of the 211 Level 3 stations, 24 are “coming soon”, with the final 53 not planned .
I think this delay is understandable and forgivable, it is hard to plan a large project like at well over 200 sites, some delay is inevitable. Perhaps less understandable is that 42 Level 2 and 53 Level 3 chargers are not accounted for. It is unclear from the data available if these chargers are in process somewhere or if these are not going to happen.
Lack of Network Design
The design of the public network of level 3 chargers has favoured urban and suburban locations rather than the highway locations needed to enable long distance travel. There are significant gaps east and west of the GTA that are not yet filled. There are currently no plans for fast chargers at any of the 400 series highway service centres.
Low Power “Fast” Chargers
However, there are some more critical issues with the program. A large number of the Level 3 chargers that are intended to charge at 50 kW are restricted to much lower power. Koben Systems Inc (KSI) won over half of the available funding under the EVCO program with a promise of 152 level 2 chargers and 126 level 3. Many of KSI’s level 3 chargers are limited to 50 amps, outputting about 20 kW.
The time taken to make a trip longer than the range of an EV is highly dependant on the time it takes to charge. Using a charger rated at 50 kW, an EV will extend its range at about 250-280 kph. A charger limited to 20 kW will give about 110-130 kph. Driving 500 km beyond the range of an EV will take about 2 hours longer using restricted chargers compared with chargers operating at full power.
The chargers that are limited share their power feed with the host site and this causes a problem with Ontario’s demand pricing for electricity. Exceeding 50kW even once changes the class of an electrical service, increasing the overall cost of power significantly.
It appears that the vast majority of KSI stations are limited to 20 kW (50 amps) and as they are due to deliver 126 of the 211 the negative impact on the public charging network is extensive.
With so many of the chargers in the public network unable to deliver a truly fast charge, the prospects for long distance EV travel in Ontario are not good.
KSI also has severe support issues. Unlike any of the other charger network, the support line is not answered by someone able to do anything with the chargers. They promise that “support will call back” but it is unclear if they ever do.
The Province failed to provide clear specifications for the level 3 chargers and support processes and as a result we are left with a mess, fast chargers that are slow and non-existent support for the majority of the charging stations.
Cost of Charging
Currently, EV charging stations charge either based on time or a connection fee plus time. This model incentivises lowering the power of a fast charger to increase the time connected and the fees paid for a charge.
In my view, the fairest way to charge for level 3 charging is a small, fixed connection charge and then a per kWh rate that is published. EV charging stations need to be regulated in exactly the same way gas pumps are, from a consumer’s point of view there is no difference.
For KSI Level 3 chargers the combination of reduced power, their fee structure can push the cost of a charge to double the cost of gas for the same journey.
KSI fees at a power restricted Level 3 Charger
|Charge Time||Charge Cost 1||Range Added||Equivalent
Gas Cost 2
|20 minutes||$ 8.95||44 km||$ 3.47|
|30 minutes||$ 10.95||67 km||$ 5.20|
|40 minutes||$ 12.95||89 km||$ 6.93|
|50 minutes||$ 14.95||111 km||$ 8.67|
|60 minutes||$ 16.95||133 km||$ 10.40|
1 Charging cost based on KSI rates ($4.95 connection fee and $0.20 per minute) on a charger limited to 50 amps.
2 Gas cost based on $1.20 per litre and consumption of 6.5 l/100km.
Families with a conventional car in addition to an EV are far less likely to undertake long journeys in their EV if it costs them more and takes them a lot longer due to KSI’s chargers.
The EVCO charging network requires regulation and policy changes to move EV long distance travel from possible to the best alternative.
Quebec’s network of Level 3 chargers consistently delivers fast charging at a much lower price. A 30 minute charge will deliver 133 km and cost $6 on an Electric Circuit station, 64% cheaper and 100% faster than KSI delivers in Ontario.
EV Supply Management F
At this time, the Province is not attempting to manage the supply of EVs in Ontario. There a provision in the Electric Vehicle Incentive Program that each manufacturer must demonstrate a path to raise EV sales to 5% by 2020. However the only sanction is the loss of access to the EVIP, which, if you don’t plan to sell cars, is no sanction at all.
Today, EVs from Nissan, GM, Hyundai and Volkswagen are sold out until the middle of 2018, Tesla’s Model 3 first Canadian deliveries are not expected until late 2018. Finding a lower cost EV in Ontario is just about impossible. In 2018 I expect this to get much worse as Quebec has introduced a quota system for EVs that starts in 2018 at 3.5% of all car sales, rising to 15.5% by 2025. This quota has already removed the 2018 Ford Focus Electric from sale in the rest of Canada and it seems likely that Ontario will lose access to other models as the impact of Quebec’s quota system is felt.
As Quebec pushes forward there is a high likelihood that the shortage of EVs in Ontario will continue for many years, handicapping the Province’s EV programs. There is little point in stimulating demand, as Ontario has done so successfully if there are no cars to buy.
Federal Minister of Transport, Marc Garneau has not indicated any desire to move forward with a national EV quota system, it is left to the Provinces to address this as Quebec already has.
Overall Assessment D+
A Promising Start, Follow Through Lacking
The current programs have changed the landscape for the EV in Ontario. By making EV ownership easier and long distance EV travel possible, the Province is to be congratulated.
The lack of supply side policy has undermined these successes and in 2018 I expect to see the slow growth of EV sales to continue or perhaps fall back depending on how Nissan and Tesla address the Quebec market.
Urgent action is required to address the issues with EVCO and quotas if growth in EVs is to continue.
Getting Started with your EV
When you buy your EV you may find that your dealer does not know much about charging and how to make life easy with your EV, here is what we have discovered over the last 3-4 months and 11,000km of ownership. This page does not cover Tesla’s cars and charging because Tesla has this packaged really well and Tesla has their own resources to help.
Your EV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) will have a plug known as a J1772 EV Plug. This universal plug is used for level 1 and 2 charging, all public Level 2 stations support this standard.
You may also have an L3/DC fast charging with either a CCS connector, where the EV Plug has 2 extra pins for DC fast charging or a CHAdeMO plug.The vast majority of Level 3 chargers support both CHAdeMO and CCS, but there are sites with either one or the other.
Level 1 charging uses a normal 110v plug and charges the car at 10-12 amps. This will add about 7km/hour to the cars range, slow but usable. Lots of EV owners only ever charge this way and for many it works well. There are some disadvantages, it takes a long time to fully charge the EV, for an e-Golf this could be up to 30 hours. Level 1 charging is less efficient as the EV’s charging system losses are a bigger percentage of the load. Level 1 makes it harder to take advantage of Time-Of-Day rates from your electricity provider as the time to charge might be longer than the cheap rate times. If you have a Plug-in Hybrid EV, Level 1 could be all you need.
Level 2 charging is more convenient as most EVs will charge at 40km/h so the charging time is much shorter – 3 to 5 hours. The cost of charging at level 2 is cheaper as the loss in the EV’s charging system is less as the charger runs for less time. Level 2 is much easier to use with Time-Of-Day rates.
The disadvantage of Level 2 charging is the start up costs. You need to run a 40 amp circuit to your garage or parking spot, you need to buy a charger. Installed this can run $1500-2000. Some jurisdictions provide subsidies for EV chargers, Ontario has a program that covers 50% of both the charger and the install, providing up to $500 for each. The only downside to this that you have to have bought the car new and received the Ontario EV rebate to get the charger rebate.
We have a ChargePoint Home charger that we are very happy with. There are quite a few manufactures with a wide range of prices. You need to decide between a basic charger or a “smart charger” that connects to the internet for control and energy monitoring. If you are going the smart route, take a good look at the app and website for controlling the charger.
There are other options for home charging such as kits and lower power units that can reduce the costs, we will cover these in a future post.
A couple of days after we picked up our car we headed out on a road trip to Maryland. We had some book smarts from researching on the Internet, but we really did not know what we were doing. That said, by the time we got back we were pros and we had a list of things we could have done to make life easier.
Plugshare is the best app for finding chargers. Most of the information is crowd sourced and they have a check in and scoring system that highlights chargers with poor reliability, if the score on a charger is less than 10, check the comments to see if there is a problem. Checking in on Plugshare when you are charging allows you to be contacted if someone is waiting for you to return and you can use ChargeBump to help too. Having a pad and pen to leave notes – requesting to be plugged in for example is also handy.
Types of Public Chargers:
Public Level 2 chargers, most are 6-7kW (40km/h). They are often installed in pairs as the picture on the right shows. Costs for charging range from free to $1-2 per hour or fixed session prices around $4.
Public Level 3 chargers (CCS and/or CHAdeMO) can range from 20-50kW, providing 100-250km/h charging. Costs vary from free to $10-20 per hour, some networks also charge a connection fee of $4-6. Fast charging can be quite expensive, particularly if the charging rate is restricted, perhaps ending up costing more than buying gas, but it is quite a small portion of the charging most people do that it does not impact the overall costs too much.
Paying for Charging:
One of the big issues with the EV world is the large number of separate charging networks that all seem to require their own accounts, apps and cards.
We discovered that using a card to start a charger is far easier than using your phone so we now have cards for all the networks we will normally use on trips.
If you live in Ontario or Quebec and you plan to travel, we recommend getting accounts with FLO or Electric Circuit, myEVRoute, ChargePoint and Greenlots. In other areas, take a look at the chargers in Plugshare to see if which accounts you might need.
With FLO or Electric Circuit you only need one or the other, they are both brands of the same company, Addenergy. FLO and EC provide the vast majority of charging stations in Quebec. They are growing their Ontario network under both brands. FLO and EC accounts also work in New Brunswick on the eCharge Network and it seems likely they will work on the new Nova Scotia Power chargers too.
An account with myEVRoute, KSI’s charging network is required for travel in Ontario, they are installing over 90 Level 3 stations in Ontario, all west of Ottawa.
A ChargePoint account is handy for a number of free stations at VW dealers (CCS only) and free stations at various other locations.
Greenlots have some stations in Canada including a handy free one at Veridian Corporation in Ajax, I have their app, I have not bothered to get a card.
For our trip to the US we used EVGo at some stations and at the time we had to phone in and use a credit card which added to the cost. We now have an account and card and this should simplify matters with them. ChargePoint and Greenlots have lots of chargers in the Eastern US.
Sema Connect Level 2 chargers are very common but you can use Plugshare to activate and pay, avoiding yet another set of accounts.
Enjoying heading out on the open road in an EV is all a matter of attitude. A bit of planning and a relaxed schedule can make for a great trip. It is much like travelling in the early days of the car, you go where the chargers take you and the journey is richer for it.
The Gas Station of the Future
A few days ago, Canadian newspapers published an interesting, but slightly misguided article on the issues of moving gas stations to charging stations. You can read it here.
The summary of this article is that the transition from gas to electricity for inter-city travel is too hard and too expensive. The article missed the fact that the transition is going to take years and that there are other factors at play that make the conversion of a highway service stations a potential money spinner.
Timing: Even if Canada stopped buying fossil/ICE cars today and switched over to 100% battery electric vehicles, it would take 10 years or more to replace the current cars on the road. We buy just under 2 million cars per year and there are about 22 million cars on the road. Many cars now last 15-20 years so the time for total replacement will be much longer. Given current projections my guess is that it will take 20 years or more for the transition to run its course.
Electrical supply changes: In 2016 the US generated about 65% of its electricity from natural gas (33.8%) and coal (30.4%) plus a small amount of oil and other non-renewables, 19.7% came from nuclear and 14.9 percent from renewables, Hydro (6.5%) wind (5.6%), biomass (1.5%), solar (0.9%) geothermal (0.4%).
US solar and wind capacity will continue to grow, even in the current political environment. As renewables grow, the issue becomes matching sunny and windy days to electrical demand. Storing electrical power for use later enables the power grid to make much better use of solar and wind reducing the use of fossil fuel. Tesla’s Powerwall is designed for a single home, but local, regional and grid energy storage systems are being deployed now.
As the installed base of renewables rises, grid storage becomes more and more attractive and important. By storing power in the grid or at the edge of the grid, renewable energy can be captured when excess is available and delivered back to customers when demand exceeds supply. If we are to move to 100% renewables, this will require a lot of power storage. Homes will have power walls and EVs connected to act as storage, neighbourhoods will have local storage and there will be lots of grid storage whether it is battery or other techologies.
How does this impact gas station conversion? Urban areas will not require as much public charging capacity as most EVs will be charged at home or work. Existing models of deploying Level 2 and 3 chargers will be extended, supermarkets, shopping centres, hotels and other destinations with parking will continue to deploy charges because they want to attract customers. Local gas stations will slowly disappear and are unlikely to be replaced directly. As home EV charging has about the same impact as running central air-conditioning, the impact on the grid will be small and will be off-set by home solar and battery systems.
Along highways away from urban centres the story is very different; there is a real need for significant infrastructure to support long distance EV travel. A typical gas station delivers of the order of 200,000km of range per day to the vehicles it services. This is a huge amount of energy and is highly variable. On a holiday Friday evening, some gas stations deliver much more gas than the average day.
The move from gas to electric does not need a one for one replacement of capacity as behaviour and patterns change as we move from fueling to charging. Rather than leaving on a trip in your fossil car with whatever gas you happen to have in the tank, your EV will be fully charged before you leave home. Your car will have a range of 4-500km before you need to charge. This may serve to limit the number of times we need to stop as Ottawa-Toronto would not need a charging stop and Montreal-Toronto would only need one quick stop.
What does a highway service station of 2025 or 2030 look like? The obvious change is that all the parking spots have high power EV chargers. A visit to the service station is just pull up, plug in and go find the coffee and the washroom. With a new generation of EVs charging at 150kW, 200km range added takes only a few minutes and you are on your way. As there is no holding a fuel nozzle in the rain to fuel up, more time is available to relax and take a break from driving.
So this all seems great but how do we get there? The obvious answer is slowly, there is a huge investment required to make this all work but there is a less obvious way this can all work and be economic. The one key technology is local battery storage to smooth demand on the grid. Tesla is already deploying battery storage and solar at their Supercharger locations with the long term goal of disconnecting Superchargers from the grid completely.
The scale required to support a highway service area in a world where most vehicles are EVs brings us back to grid storage. By building large scale energy storage at service stations to allow them to deal with holiday weekends without overloading the local grid service stations have a huge and potentially profitable asset they can use as grid energy storage. Grid storage works by charging when electricity supply exceeds demand when prices are low or even negative and then selling that power back to the grid when prices are high. This technology reduces the need to have lots of backup generating capacity in the grid.
Because we all tend to hit the road on the holidays, there will be a huge difference between the typical usage of the chargers and the peak usage. This means that the energy storage can be used by the grid most of the time, providing a significant revenue opportunity.
This model has the possibility to move service stations to an entirely sustainable future, both economically and environmentally. As service stations are largely rural, colocation of solar and wind farms is also attractive.
For highway service areas, the transition from selling gas to becoming a key part of the electricity supply system will not be easy, but it is achievable and potential profitable.